The shapes (luminous flame boundaries) of round luminous nonbuoyant soot-containing hydrocarbon/air laminar jet diffusion flames at microgravity were found from color video images obtained on orbit in the Space Shuttle Columbia. Test conditions included ethylene- and propane-fueled flames burning in still air at an ambient temperature of 300 K, ambient pressures of 35-130 kPa, initial jet diameters of 1.6 and 2.7 mm, and jet exit Reynolds numbers of 45-170. Present test times were 100-200 s and yielded steady axisymmetric flames that were close to the laminar smoke point (including flames both emitting and not emitting soot) with luminous flame lengths of 15-63 mm. The present soot-containing flames had larger luminous flame lengths than earlier ground-based observations having similar burner configurations: 40% larger than the luminous flame lengths of soot-containing low gravity flames observed using an aircraft (KC-135) facility due to reduced effects of accelerative disturbances and unsteadiness; roughly twice as large as the luminous flame lengths of soot- containing normal gravity flames due to the absence of effects of buoyant mixing and roughly twice as large as the luminous flame lengths of soot-free low gravity flames observed using drop tower facilities due to the presence of soot luminosity and possible reduced effects of unsteadiness. Simplified expressions to estimate the luminous flame boundaries of round nonbuoyant laminar jet diffusion flames were obtained from the classical analysis of Spalding (1979); this approach provided successful correlations of flame shapes for both soot-free and soot-containing flames, except when the soot-containing flames were in the opened-tip configuration that is reached at fuel flow rates near and greater than the laminar smoke point fuel flow rate.
Lin, K.C., Faeth, G.M., Sunderland, P.B., Urban, D.L., Yuan, Z.G., Shapes of Nonbuoyant Round Luminous Hydrocarbon/Air Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames, Combustion and Flame, Elsevier Sciences Inc., New York, NY, Vol. 116, pp. 415-431, 1999.